Refrigerant's Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Data

Refrigerant’s Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data.

 Compiled by Rolando Delgado and Sergio Montelier  

   Versión en Español                                                                       English version


 

The vapor-liquid equilibrium data are required as important basic information in evaluating the performance of refrigeration cycles and determining their optimal compositions.

 

There is a pressing need for new environmentally friendly refrigerants with zero ODP (ozone depletion potential) and low GWP (global warming potential), whose data are sufficient to formulate a fully developed equation of state for the purpose of optimum design of such systems and optimum selection of the refrigerant.

 

1.   Phase Equilibria of Chlorofluorocarbon Alternative Refrigerant Mixtures.

 

HFC mixtures have been considered as promising candidates for replacement of CFC compounds since their ozone depletion potentials are low.

 

In this work vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) for binary mixtures were measured 303.15 K and 323.15 K:

 

Component (A)

Sign (A)

Component (B)

Sign (B)

difluoromethane

HFC-32

1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane

HFC-134a

difluoromethane

HFC-32

pentafluoroethane

HFC-125

difluoromethane

HFC-32

1,1,1-trifluoroethane

HFC-143a

difluoromethane

HFC-32

1,1-difluoroethane

HFC-152a

 

Reference:

Byung Gwon Lee,* Ji Young Park, Jong Sung Lim, Sung Yong Cho, and Kun You Park:

Phase Equilibria of Chlorofluorocarbon Alternative Refrigerant Mixtures. J. Chem. Eng. Data 1999, 44, 190-192

 

 

2.      Phase Equilibria of CFC Alternative Refrigerant Mixtures.

Binary Systems of Trifluoromethane (HFC-23) + 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) and

Trifluoromethane (HFC-23) + 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-Heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ea) at 283.15 and 293.15 K

 

Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) mixtures are considered to be promising candidates for replacement of CFC compounds because their ozone depletion potentials are low. Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data are required to evaluate the performance of refrigeration cycles and to determine their optimal compositions.

 

In this work, it was measured VLE data for two binary systems:

Component (A)

Sign (A)

Component (B)

Sign (B)

Trifluoromethane

HFC-23

1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane

HFC-134a

Trifluoromethane

HFC-23

pentafluoroethane

HFC-125

  

Trifluoromethane (HFC-23) + 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC- 134a) and trifluoromethane + 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ea) at 283.15 and 293.15 K, respectively.

 

Reference:

Jong Sung Lim, Ki Hyun Park, Byung Gwon Lee, and Jae-Duck Kim (2001):

J. Chem. Eng. Data 2001, 46, 1580-1583

 

 

3.   Phase Equilibria of CFC Alternative Refrigerant Mixtures:

Binary Systems of Isobutane + 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, + 1,1-Difluoroethane, and + Difluoromethane

 

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), such as

1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a; C2H2F4),

1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a; C2H4F2), and

difluoromethane (HFC-32; CH2F2)

are promising alternative refrigerants to replace

dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12; CCl2F2) and

chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22; CHClF2).

 

Isobutane is also one of the well-known hydrocarbon refrigerants, which is widely used in Europe.

 

The mixtures of the two compounds may have a good potential for alternative refrigerants.

 

In this work, it was measured the isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) for three binary systems:

 

Component (A)

Component (B)

Sign (B)

Isobutane

1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane

HFC-134a

Isobutane

difluoromethane

HFC-32

Isobutane

1,1-difluoroethane

HFC-152a

 

Azeotropic mixtures have merit, since their behavior is similar to that of pure compounds.

Reference:

Jong Sung Lim, Ji-Young Park, Byung-Gwon Lee, Youn-Woo Lee, and Jae-Duck Kim (1999): Phase Equilibria of CFC Alternative Refrigerant Mixtures. 

 J. Chem. Eng. Data 1999, 44, 1226-1230

 

 

4.     Liquid-Phase Thermodynamic Properties of New Refrigerants:

Pentafluoroethyl Methyl Ether and Heptafluoropropyl Methyl Ether.

 

In the present paper, it has been reported an experimental study on the liquid-phase thermodynamic properties of the new-generation alternative refrigerants,

pentafluoroethyl methyl ether, CF3CF2OCH3 (1-methoxi-1,1,2,2 – heptafluoro ethane) and

heptafluoropropyl methyl ether (1-methoxi-1,1,2,2,3,3,3 – heptafluoropropane)  CF3CF2CF2OCH3 .  

 

Reference:

Hirofumi Ohta, Yoshiyuki Morimoto, Januarius V. Widiatmo, and Koichi Watanabe (2001): J. Chem. Eng. Data 2001, 46, 1020-1024

 

 

5.   Thermodynamic Property Measurements

for Trifluoromethyl Methyl Ether and Pentafluoroethyl Methyl Ether

 

PVT properties are presented for both the gas-phase and liquid-phase, vapor pressures and saturated liquid densities for hydrofluoroether (HFE) refrigerants, trifluoromethyl methyl ether (CF3OCH3) and pentafluoroethyl methyl ether (C2F5OCH3).

 

Among several alternative candidates of new refrigerants, HFEs (hydrofluoroethers) are expected to be promising alternative refrigerants due to their short atmospheric lifetimes. Especially, trifluoromethyl methyl ether (CF3OCH3) and pentafluoroethyl methyl ether (C2F5-OCH3) have been selected for research in a national project of RITE (the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Japan) to replace dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC12) and 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (CFC114), respectively.

 

Reference:

Yohei Kayukawa, Masaya Hasumoto, Takashi Hondo, Yuya Kano, and Koichi Watanabe (2003): J. Chem. Eng. Data 2003, 48, 1141-1151

 

 

6.  Thermodynamic Modeling of Refrigerants

Using the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory with Variable Range. 

1. Pure Components

 

The chlorine-free compounds are considered one of the best substitutes for reducing stratospheric ozone loss. Hence HFCs, hydrofluoroethers (HFEs), fluoroiodo compounds (FI), hydrocarbons (HCs), etc. are being considered. These new generation refrigerants are evaluated based on a number of factors including toxicity, insulating ability, flammability, physical stability, solubility, cost, ODP, GWP, compatibility, chemical stability, performance, and permeability.  HFEs are being considered as new generation refrigerants and blowing agents, although they are still in the evaluation phase.

 

This theory has been used for the phase equilibrium calculations of 49 pure refrigerants divided into eight classes:

hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs),

hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs),

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs),

chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs),

perfluorocarbons (PFCs),

hydrofluoroethers (HFEs),

C1-C6 hydrocarbons (HCs), and

fluoroiodides (HIs).

 

Reference

Saravanan Swaminathan and Donald P. Visco, Jr. (2005):  Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2005, 44, 4798-4805

 

 

7.    Liquid-Phase Thermodynamic Properties for Propane,  n-Butane, and Isobutane.

 

Hydrocarbons (HCs) are expected to be promising alternative candidates to replace some fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants such as CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), and HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons).

 

Because their global warming potential (GWP) is negligible, they are regarded as environmentally friendly and good cost-performance refrigerants, despite their flammability.

 

Some household refrigerators from manufacturers in Europe and even Japan have already been developed.

 

However, it is needless to say that the thermodynamic models for HCs play an essential role in cycle-performance prediction, various kinds of design for equipment, and the selection of refrigerants.  

 

In the present study, it has been measured PVT properties for propane, n-butane, and isobutane.

 

Reference:

Yohei Kayukawa, Masaya Hasumoto, Yuya Kano, and Koichi Watanabe (2005):

 J. Chem. Eng. Data 2005, 50, 556-564

 

 

8.   Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) Properties for the Binary Systems

Propane (1) + n-Butane (2) and Propane (1) + Isobutane (3)

 

Light hydrocarbon (HC) blends are receiving attention for use in refrigeration engineering because of their potential as a mixture refrigerant that realizes the Lorentz cycle with high performance.

 

PTxy data (bubble-point and dew-point pressures at a specific composition) for two binary systems, propane (1) + n-butane (2) and propane (1) + isobutane (3), are presented in this paper.

 

Reference:

Yohei Kayukawa, Kenichi Fujii, and Yukihiro Higashi (2005):

J. Chem. Eng. Data 2005, 50, 579-582.

 

 

9.   Liquid-Phase Thermodynamic Properties for the Binary and Ternary

      Systems of Propane (1), n-Butane (2), and Isobutane (3)

 

In this paper, liquid phase PVTx data including bubble points for the binary and ternary systems composed of propane (1), n-butane (2), and isobutane (3) are reported.

 

They say that to improve the cycle efficiency of refrigeration systems, the use of refrigerant mixtures to realize the Lorentz cycle is of concern.

 

In the present study, approximately 300 PVTx properties including those at the bubble points of the three binary systems propane (1) + n-butane (2), propane (1) + isobutene (3), and n-butane (2) + isobutane (3) were measured.

 

Reference:

Yohei Kayukawa, Masaya Hasumoto, Yuya Kano, and Koichi Watanabe (2005):

J. Chem. Eng. Data 2005, 50, 565-578.


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